1996

23 documented cases in 1996:


Amritsar District

Ajnala Subdistrict
Harjinder Singh Male, age 20-22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sallodin, Ajnala
Kabal Singh Male, age 36 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jhanjoti, Ajnala
Patti Subdistrict
Dilbagh Singh Male, age 31-32 at time of extrajudicial execution, Rattoke Prem Nagar, Patti
Hira Singh Male, age 20 at time of extrajudicial execution, Thathi Jaimal Singh, Patti

Bathinda District

Bathinda Subdistrict
Darshan Singh Male, age 24-25 at time of disappearance, Lehra Dhul Kot, Bathinda
Lachman Singh Male, age 40-45 at time of extrajudicial execution, Dan Singhwala, Bathinda

Firozpur District

Firozpur Subdistrict
Harbans Singh Male, age 31-36 at time of extrajudicial execution, Machhiwara Alias Kamagar, Firozpur
Kamaljit Singh Male, age 31 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kailash, Firozpur
Zira Subdistrict
Bikar Singh Male, age 34-35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Mithe, Zira
Chanan Singh Male, age 55 at time of extrajudicial execution, Talwandi Bhai, Zira
Sukhdev Singh Male, age 30-31 at time of extrajudicial execution, Chak Mahrana, Zira

Jalandhar District

Nakodar Subdistrict
Sukhwinder Singh Male, age 35-36 at time of extrajudicial execution, Muzaffarpur, Nakodar
Shahkot Subdistrict
Mahinder Singh Male, age 22-23 at time of extrajudicial execution, Burewal, Shahkot

Ludhiana District

Jagroan Subdistrict
Jaswant Singh Male, age 42 at time of extrajudicial execution, Boparai Kalan, Jagroan
Ludhiana East Subdistrict
Amritpal Singh Male, age 22-23 at time of extrajudicial execution, Lehra, Ludhiana East
Ludhiana West Subdistrict
Darshan Singh Male, age 25-26 at time of extrajudicial execution, Gill, Ludhiana West
Raikot Subdistrict
Amarjit Singh Male, age 29 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jand, Raikot

Nawanshahr District

Nawanshahr Subdistrict
Sital Singh Male, age 20 at time of disappearance, Lidhar Kalan, Nawanshahr

Patiala District

Samana Subdistrict
Surjeet Singh Male, age 29-36 at time of extrajudicial execution, Samana, Samana

Sangrur District

Barnala Subdistrict
Jaswinder Singh Male, age 43 at time of extrajudicial execution, Dhaula, Barnala
Dhuri Subdistrict
Mal Singh Male, age 28 at time of extrajudicial execution, Gurbaxpura, Dhuri

Location Withheld

Anonymous Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 54 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld

Key statistics of cases in 1996:

Victim Demographics 

Gender

100.0% Male 23
 
 
0.0% Female 0

Marital status

34.8% Not married 8
 
 
65.2% Married 15

If married, did the victim have children?

47.8% Yes 11
 
 
8.7% No 2


Total children surviving victims: 32


Religion

95.7% Sikh 22
 
 
4.3% Non-Sikh 1

Caste

60.9% Jat 14
 
 
39.1% Non-Jat 9

Age

65.2% 18-33 15
 
26.1% 34-49 6
 
8.7% 50-64 2
 

Education

34.8% No education 8
 
21.7% Primary school 5
 
13.0% Middle school 3
 
21.7% High school 5
 
4.3% Some college 1
 
4.3% Graduate degree 1
 

Employment

34.8% Farmer/agriculture 8
 
30.4% Day labourer 7
 
4.3% Driver (bus/truck/car) 1
 
4.3% Student 1
 
4.3% Carpenter 1
 
21.7% Other 5
 

Urban / Rural

82.6% Rural 19
 
 
8.7% Urban 2

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

60.9% Yes 14
 
 
39.1% No 9

Prior torture

43.5% Yes 10
 
 
17.4% No 4

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

65.2% Yes 15
 
 
30.4% No 7

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

27.3% Yes 3
 
 
72.7% No 8

Witnesses to abduction

47.8% Yes 11
 
 
8.7% No 2

Victim abduction location

21.7% Victim’s residence 5
 
8.7% Friend/relative's residence 2
 
8.7% Checkpoint (naka) 2
 
8.7% Roadside 2
 
8.7% Village fields 2
 
4.3% Bus station/stand 1
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

39.1% Yes 9
 
 
26.1% No 6

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

17.4% Denied involvement 4
 
13.0% Other 3
 
4.3% Gave no response 1
 
4.3% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 1
 
4.3% Victim had escaped 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

4.3% Yes 1
 
 
52.2% No 12

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

91.3% Extrajudicial executions 21
 
 
8.7% Enforced disappearances 2

Number of victims per family

78.3% 1 victim 18
 
21.7% 2 victim 5
 

Related incidents

0.0% Genuine encounters in family 0
 
 
95.7% No genuine encounters in family 22

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

8.7% Cremated the body 2
 
4.3% Dumped body in canal or river 1
 

Security forces returned body

47.8% Yes 11
 
0.0% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 0
 
39.1% No 9
 

Condition of corpse, if known

26.1% Other 6
 
8.7% Cuts/wounds 2
 
8.7% Broken bones 2
 
8.7% Missing hair from head or face 2
 
8.7% Burn marks 2
 
4.3% Bruises 1
 
4.3% Missing fingernails 1
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

56.5% Yes 13
 
 
17.4% No 4

Security forces uniformed

81.8% Yes 9
 
 
9.1% No 1

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

47.8% Punjab Police 11
 
8.7% Other 2
 
4.3% Criminal Investigation Agency 1
 
4.3% Black cat 1
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

65.2% Punjab police 15
 
8.7% Criminal Investigation Agency 2
 
8.7% Other 2
 
4.3% Black cat 1
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

13.0% Combatant 3
 
 
78.3% Non-combatant 18

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

17.4% Yes 4
 
 
60.9% No 14

If provided support, support was voluntary

13.0% Yes 3
 
 
4.3% No 1

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

30.4% Yes 7
 
 
69.6% No 16

Approached security officials

34.8% Yes 8
 
 
65.2% No 15

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

56.5% Afraid of retaliation 13
 
30.4% Couldn’t afford 7
 
26.1% Didn’t know what to do 6
 
4.3% Believed it would have been ineffective 1
 
4.3% Other 1
 

Remedies desired from government

78.3% Monetary compensation to family 18
 
65.2% Truth commission 15
 
60.9% Employment 14
 
39.1% Investigations into abuses 9
 
26.1% Rehabilitation services to family members 6
 
21.7% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 5
 
21.7% Criminal sanctions against those responsible 5
 
8.7% Desire nothing from government 2
 
8.7% Other 2
 
4.3% Memorial for victims 1
 

Year & District 

District

17.4% Amritsar 4
 
8.7% Bathinda 2
 
21.7% Firozpur 5
 
8.7% Jalandhar 2
 
17.4% Ludhiana 4
 
4.3% Nawanshahr 1
 
4.3% Patiala 1
 
8.7% Sangrur 2
 

Year

0.0% 1981 0
 
0.0% 1982 0
 
0.0% 1983 0
 
0.0% 1984 0
 
0.0% 1985 0
 
0.0% 1986 0
 
0.0% 1987 0
 
0.0% 1988 0
 
0.0% 1989 0
 
0.0% 1990 0
 
0.0% 1991 0
 
0.0% 1992 0
 
0.0% 1993 0
 
0.0% 1994 0
 
17.4% 1995 4
 
82.6% 1996 19
 
0.0% 1997 0
 
0.0% 1998 0
 
0.0% 1999 0
 
0.0% 2000 0
 
0.0% 2001 0
 
0.0% 2002 0
 
0.0% 2003 0
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.0% 2005 0
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 0
 
0.0% 2012 0
 
0.0% Date Unknown 0
 

Note: Where a victim’s date of extrajudicial execution or disappearance falls within a date range that crosses two years (e.g. “between October 1989 and February 1990”), the case appears on both years’ pages. Boundaries based on the 2001 census. Read about our methodology.