Army

118 documented cases directly implicating Army in abduction/disappearance:


Amritsar District

Ajnala Subdistrict
Ajit Singh Male, age 25 at time of disappearance, Passia
Chain Singh Male, age 22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Nissoke
Dalbir Singh Male, age 18-19 at time of extrajudicial execution, Raja Sansi
Daljit Singh Male, age 45-46 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kot Gurbaksh
Karaz Singh Male, age 38 at time of extrajudicial execution, Maure
Karnail Singh Male, age 75 at time of extrajudicial execution, Harse Chhina Patti Vichla Qila (Nivan Qila)
Major Singh Male, age 21 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kaulowal
Manjit Singh Male, age 23-24 at time of extrajudicial execution, Passia
Puran Kaur Female, age 70 at time of extrajudicial execution, Harse Chhina Patti Subazpura
Ram Singh Male, age 60 at time of extrajudicial execution, Raja Sansi
Ranjit Singh Male, age 22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Harse Chhina Patti Subazpura
Sudsgar Singh Male, age 42 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kotla Suraj Lohar
Amritsar I Subdistrict
Hans Raj Male, age 22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Majitha
Harpal Singh Bhatti Male, age 24-25 at time of extrajudicial execution, Ludhar
Major Singh Male, age 33 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kot Hride Ram
Mohan Singh Male, age 50 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kot Hride Ram
Sawinder Singh Male, age 27 at time of disappearance, Bhangali Khurd
Amritsar II Subdistrict
Darshan Singh Male, age 40-45 at time of extrajudicial execution, Amritsar
Dilbag Singh Male, age 27-28 at time of extrajudicial execution, Amritsar
Gurbachan Singh Male, age 35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Amritsar
Gurinder Singh Male, age 19-20 at time of extrajudicial execution, Basarke Gillan
Jasmail Singh Male, age 22-25 at time of disappearance, Bhakna Khurd
Jeevan Singh Male, age 40-50 at time of extrajudicial execution, Heir
Kirpal Singh Male, age 30 at time of extrajudicial execution, Amritsar
Kuldeep Singh Male, age 31 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sultanwind
Makhan Singh Male, age 24 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kale Ghanupur
Mohinder Singh Male, age 60 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kathanian
Mukhtar Singh Male, age 60-62 at time of extrajudicial execution, Pandori
Pritam Singh Male, age 30 at time of extrajudicial execution, Amritsar
Surat Singh Male, age 62-63 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sultanwind
Baba Bakala Subdistrict
Amarjit Singh Male, age 28 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sathiala
Mangal Singh Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, Arjan Manga
Palwinder Singh Male, age 35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Arjan Manga
Ranjit Singh Male, age 30 at time of extrajudicial execution, Chandanke
Sohan Singh Male, age 40 at time of extrajudicial execution, Saido Lehal
Sukhwinder Singh Male, age 23 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kaler Ghumman
Surjit Singh Male, age 19 at time of extrajudicial execution, Chhajjal Wadi
Surjit Singh Male, age 32 at time of extrajudicial execution, Bhorchhi Rajputan
Khadoor Sahib Subdistrict
Balwinder Singh Male, age 23 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jallala Bad
Balwinder Singh Male, age 16-17 at time of extrajudicial execution, Lalpur
Charnjit Singh Male, age 18 at time of extrajudicial execution, Khan Rajada
Chirmal Singh Male, age 21-22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sarai Talwandi
Gurdyal Singh Male, age 20 at time of disappearance, Lalpur
Gurmeet Singh Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, Dera Sohal
Gurnam Singh Male, age 20 at time of extrajudicial execution, Dolchipur
Karnail Singh Male, age 22-23 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jallala Bad
Sarbjit Singh Male, age 18-19 at time of disappearance, Lalpur
Shital Singh Male, age 44 at time of extrajudicial execution, Bhut Wind
Patti Subdistrict
Balbir Singh Male, age 34 at time of extrajudicial execution, Nathupur Toda
Dara Singh Male, age 58 at time of extrajudicial execution, Warnala
Gurcharn Singh Male, age 50 at time of extrajudicial execution, Nathupur Toda
Jagtar Singh Male, age 55-60 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sabhrai
Jasbir Singh Male, age 15 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sur Singh
Jaswant Singh Male, age 35-36 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sur Singh
Karn Bir Singh Male, age 16 at time of extrajudicial execution, Nathupur Toda
Mehar Singh Male, age 26 at time of extrajudicial execution, Nathupur Toda
Milakha Singh Male, age 22-23 at time of extrajudicial execution, Gajjal
Pargat Singh Male, age 40 at time of extrajudicial execution, Nathupur Toda
Sarwan Singh Male, age 17 at time of extrajudicial execution, Nathupur Toda
Sarwan Singh Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sur Singh
Sarwan Singh Male, age 30 at time of extrajudicial execution, Muthianwala
Tarn Taran Subdistrict
Chanan Singh Male, age 55 at time of extrajudicial execution, Warana
Gurmel Singh Male, age 41 at time of extrajudicial execution, Pandori Gola
Gurvail Singh Male, age 16 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jawanda Khurd
Harpinder Singh Male, age 20-21 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kasel
Mukhtar Singh Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, Deo
Puran Singh Male, age 26-27 at time of extrajudicial execution, Bhure
Rajwinder Singh Male, age 36 at time of extrajudicial execution, Panjwar
Shamsher Singh Male, age 20 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jhabal Kalan
Shingara Singh Male, age 65 at time of extrajudicial execution, Leian
Udham Singh Male, age 60-65 at time of extrajudicial execution, Thathgarh

Bathinda District

Bathinda Subdistrict
Balvir Singh Male, age 25-28 at time of extrajudicial execution, Seman

Firozpur District

Firozpur Subdistrict
Kartar Singh Male, age 40-42 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sadhu Shahwala
Labh Singh Male, age 30-35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Mattar Uttar
Nimma Singh Male, age 35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Palha Megha
Jalalabad Subdistrict
Pargat Singh Male, age 26-27 at time of extrajudicial execution, Ratta Khera
Zira Subdistrict
Ajit Singh Male, age 65 at time of extrajudicial execution, Killi Bodla
Iqbal Kaur Female, age 90 at time of extrajudicial execution, Killi Bodla
Jaswant Singh Male, age 16 at time of extrajudicial execution, Mallanwala
Jaswinder Kaur Female, age 39-40 at time of extrajudicial execution, Killi Bodla
Lakhwinder Kaur Female, age 50 at time of extrajudicial execution, Killi Bodla
Manjit Kaur Female, age 35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Killi Bodla
Rajwinder Singh Male, age 16 at time of extrajudicial execution, Killi Bodla
Sukhwinder Singh Male, age 21 at time of extrajudicial execution, Killi Bodla

Gurdaspur District

Batala Subdistrict
Amarjit Singh Male, age 22-23 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kotla Baman
Gurdit Singh Male, age 28 at time of extrajudicial execution, Awan
Gurjit Singh Male, age 25-26 at time of extrajudicial execution, Dhapai
Kulwant Singh Male, age 20 at time of extrajudicial execution, Cheema
Satnam Singh Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jaitu Sarja
Dera Baba Nanak Subdistrict
Balwinder Singh Male, age 17-18 at time of extrajudicial execution, Dera Baba Nanak
Gurdaspur Subdistrict
Baljit Singh Male, age 19-20 at time of disappearance, Chuhar Chak
Darshan Singh Male, age 35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Awankha
Jagir Singh Male, age 22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kalanaur

Jalandhar District

Jalandhar I Subdistrict
Baljit Singh Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jalandhar
Jalandhar II Subdistrict
Paramjit Singh Male, age 25-26 at time of extrajudicial execution, Kohja
Nakodar Subdistrict
Jagir Singh Male, age 32 at time of extrajudicial execution, Chak Kalan

Ludhiana District

Jagroan Subdistrict
Ajmair Singh Male, age 20-22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Malsian Bhaike
Amarjit Singh Male, age 21 at time of extrajudicial execution, Hans
Pyara Singh Male, age 34-35 at time of extrajudicial execution, Amargarh Urf Kaler
Ram Singh Male, age 27-28 at time of extrajudicial execution, Sherpur Khurd
Samrala Subdistrict
Avtar Singh Male, age 20 at time of extrajudicial execution, Jassowal

Mansa District

Budhlada Subdistrict
Jagroop Singh Male, age 27-28 at time of extrajudicial execution, Hassanpur

Moga District

Moga Subdistrict
Jagan Singh Male, age 43 at time of extrajudicial execution, Talwandi Bhangerian

Muktsar District

Muktsar Subdistrict
Gullu Singh Male, age 65 at time of extrajudicial execution, Muktsar

Nawanshahr District

Nawanshahr Subdistrict
Ranjeet Singh Male, age 20-22 at time of disappearance, Mazari

Patiala District

Dera Bassi Subdistrict
Gurnam Singh Male, age 40-45 at time of extrajudicial execution, Basauli
Patiala Subdistrict
Barkha Singh Male, age 21-22 at time of extrajudicial execution, Karhali
Samana Subdistrict
Inder Kaur Female, age 62-65 at time of extrajudicial execution, Danipur

Sangrur District

Sangrur Subdistrict
Bhupinder Singh Male, age 22-23 at time of disappearance, Bhawanigarh

Location Withheld

Anonymous Male, age 45 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 25 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 75 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 14 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 30 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 21 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 25-27 at time of extrajudicial execution, location withheld
Anonymous Male, age 22 at time of disappearance, location withheld
Suraj Kumar Singh Male, age 20-22 at time of extrajudicial execution

Key statistics of cases directly implicating Army:

Victim Demographics 

Gender

94.9% Male 112
 
 
5.1% Female 6

Marital status

47.5% Not married 56
 
 
51.7% Married 61

If married, did the victim have children?

49.2% Yes 58
 
 
2.5% No 3


Total children surviving victims: 187


Religion

98.3% Sikh 116
 
 
0.8% Non-Sikh 1

Caste

72.9% Jat 86
 
 
26.3% Non-Jat 31

Age

6.8% 0-17 8
 
56.8% 18-33 67
 
19.5% 34-49 23
 
10.2% 50-64 12
 
5.9% 65+ 7
 

Education

34.7% No education 41
 
11.0% Primary school 13
 
16.1% Middle school 19
 
28.8% High school 34
 
0.8% Some college 1
 
3.4% College degree 4
 
2.5% Graduate degree 3
 
1.7% Vocational degree 2
 

Employment

50.8% Farmer/agriculture 60
 
8.5% Student 10
 
7.6% Day labourer 9
 
5.9% Shopkeeper 7
 
5.1% Housewife 6
 
0.8% Unemployed 1
 
0.8% Driver (bus/truck/car) 1
 
0.8% Mechanic 1
 
26.3% Other 31
 

Urban / Rural

79.7% Rural 94
 
 
12.7% Urban 15

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

22.9% Yes 27
 
 
76.3% No 90

Prior torture

17.8% Yes 21
 
 
5.1% No 6

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

42.4% Yes 50
 
 
56.8% No 67

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

17.5% Yes 7
 
 
87.5% No 35

Witnesses to abduction

33.9% Yes 40
 
 
2.5% No 3

Victim abduction location

11.0% Victim’s residence 13
 
9.3% Roadside 11
 
4.2% Village fields 5
 
4.2% Checkpoint (naka) 5
 
3.4% Friend/relative's residence 4
 
10.2% Other 12
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

25.4% Yes 30
 
 
16.9% No 20

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

21.2% Other 25
 
10.2% Gave no response 12
 
9.3% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 11
 
6.8% Denied involvement 8
 
5.1% Told family to go to another police station 6
 
3.4% Killed victim in an “encounter” 4
 
2.5% Victim killed in crossfire with militants 3
 
0.8% Victim had escaped 1
 
0.8% Victim accidentally killed in custody 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

2.5% Yes 3
 
 
28.8% No 34

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

92.4% Extrajudicial executions 109
 
 
7.6% Enforced disappearances 9

Number of victims per family

83.9% 1 victim 99
 
7.6% 2 victim 9
 
2.5% 3 victim 3
 
5.9% 7 victim 7
 

Related incidents

1.7% Genuine encounters in family 2
 
 
97.5% No genuine encounters in family 115

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

27.1% Cremated the body 32
 
2.5% Dumped body in canal or river 3
 

Security forces returned body

43.2% Yes 51
 
0.0% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 0
 
49.2% No 58
 

Condition of corpse, if known

40.7% Bullet wounds 48
 
9.3% Cuts/wounds 11
 
8.5% Burn marks 10
 
7.6% Broken bones 9
 
5.9% Bruises 7
 
3.4% Missing hair from head or face 4
 
2.5% Other 3
 
2.5% Missing fingernails 3
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

33.9% Yes 40
 
 
18.6% No 22

Security forces uniformed

120.0% Yes 48
 
 
0.0% No 0

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

38.1% Army 45
 
22.0% Punjab Police 26
 
11.9% CRPF 14
 
4.2% BSF 5
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

72.0% Army 85
 
40.7% Punjab police 48
 
23.7% CRPF 28
 
5.9% BSF 7
 
0.8% Other 1
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

16.9% Combatant 20
 
 
81.4% Non-combatant 96

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

9.3% Yes 11
 
 
69.5% No 82

If provided support, support was voluntary

5.9% Yes 7
 
 
2.5% No 3

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

41.5% Yes 49
 
 
57.6% No 68

Approached security officials

47.5% Yes 56
 
 
52.5% No 62

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

40.7% Afraid of retaliation 48
 
14.4% Didn’t know what to do 17
 
11.9% Believed it would have been ineffective 14
 
9.3% Couldn’t afford 11
 
5.9% Not applicable 7
 
0.8% Other 1
 

Remedies desired from government

71.2% Monetary compensation to family 84
 
59.3% Employment 70
 
53.4% Truth commission 63
 
33.9% Criminal sanctions against those responsible 40
 
33.1% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 39
 
32.2% Investigations into abuses 38
 
16.1% Rehabilitation services to family members 19
 
12.7% Memorial for victims 15
 
5.9% Other 7
 
5.9% Desire nothing from government 7
 

Year & District 

District

60.2% Amritsar 71
 
0.8% Bathinda 1
 
10.2% Firozpur 12
 
7.6% Gurdaspur 9
 
2.5% Jalandhar 3
 
4.2% Ludhiana 5
 
0.8% Mansa 1
 
0.8% Moga 1
 
0.8% Muktsar 1
 
0.8% Nawanshahr 1
 
2.5% Patiala 3
 
0.8% Sangrur 1
 

Year

0.0% 1981 0
 
0.0% 1982 0
 
0.8% 1983 1
 
35.6% 1984 42
 
1.7% 1985 2
 
2.5% 1986 3
 
1.7% 1987 2
 
2.5% 1988 3
 
2.5% 1989 3
 
3.4% 1990 4
 
26.3% 1991 31
 
16.1% 1992 19
 
2.5% 1993 3
 
0.8% 1994 1
 
0.0% 1995 0
 
0.0% 1996 0
 
0.0% 1997 0
 
0.0% 1998 0
 
0.0% 1999 0
 
0.0% 2000 0
 
0.0% 2001 0
 
0.0% 2002 0
 
0.0% 2003 0
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.0% 2005 0
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 0
 
0.0% 2012 0
 
3.4% Date Unknown 4
 

Boundaries based on the 2001 census. Read about our methodology.