Key Statistics

Percentage of 5,234 documented cases. Percentages may not equal 100% because some respondents did not answer every survey question.


Victim Demographics 

Gender

97.8% Male 5,117
 
 
2.2% Female 117

Marital status

57.8% Not married 3,025
 
 
42.0% Married 2,198

If married, did the victim have children?

35.9% Yes 1,881
 
 
4.8% No 250


Total children surviving victims: 5,144


Religion

98.1% Sikh 5,134
 
 
1.9% Non-Sikh 97

Caste

70.8% Jat 3,707
 
 
29.0% Non-Jat 1,519

Age

5.1% 0-17 268
 
73.7% 18-33 3,858
 
13.9% 34-49 727
 
3.6% 50-64 188
 
1.4% 65+ 73
 
0.3% Age unknown 16
 

Education

23.6% No education 1,235
 
16.8% Primary school 881
 
16.1% Middle school 844
 
33.8% High school 1,768
 
2.1% Some college 111
 
3.4% College degree 179
 
1.6% Graduate degree 82
 
2.0% Vocational degree 106
 

Employment

43.4% Farmer/agriculture 2,272
 
13.2% Day labourer 689
 
9.9% Student 518
 
5.2% Driver (bus/truck/car) 271
 
4.2% Shopkeeper 219
 
3.0% Unemployed 158
 
2.1% Mechanic 109
 
1.5% Housewife 81
 
0.5% Carpenter 28
 
23.2% Other 1,215
 

Urban / Rural

84.3% Rural 4,414
 
 
8.3% Urban 435

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

44.8% Yes 2,345
 
 
54.5% No 2,853

Prior torture

34.8% Yes 1,822
 
 
10.0% No 523

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

77.9% Yes 4,079
 
 
19.6% No 1,026

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

20.2% Yes 642
 
 
76.7% No 2,432

Witnesses to abduction

60.6% Yes 3,171
 
 
5.4% No 283

Victim abduction location

19.3% Victim’s residence 1,008
 
13.9% Roadside 728
 
10.5% Friend/relative's residence 548
 
6.4% Village fields 336
 
3.2% Shop/market 165
 
2.9% Police station 151
 
2.5% Checkpoint (naka) 129
 
2.3% Bus station/stand 120
 
0.7% Village drain 37
 
11.4% Other 595
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

49.2% Yes 2,576
 
 
28.4% No 1,484

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

13.2% Gave no response 689
 
11.7% Other 610
 
11.6% Denied involvement 608
 
7.1% Told family to go to another police station 369
 
5.1% Killed victim in an “encounter” 265
 
4.3% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 226
 
2.0% Admitted custody only 107
 
1.7% Victim had escaped 87
 
0.5% Victim accidentally killed in custody 24
 
0.3% Victim killed by militants 18
 
0.3% Victim killed in crossfire with militants 18
 
0.1% Victim killed while trying to escape 7
 
0.0% Victim killed by black cats 2
 
0.0% Victim killed while resisting arrest/search 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

3.8% Yes 197
 
 
52.6% No 2,755

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

83.9% Extrajudicial executions 4,393
 
 
16.1% Enforced disappearances 841

Number of victims per family

82.2% 1 victim 4,301
 
12.7% 2 victims 664
 
3.7% 3 victims 194
 
0.6% 4 victims 29
 
0.3% 5 victims 16
 
0.1% 6 victims 6
 
0.3% 7 victims 14
 
0.2% 9 victims 9
 

Related incidents

3.2% Genuine encounters in family 167
 
 
96.0% No genuine encounters in family 5,027

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

31.8% Cremated the body 1,665
 
1.8% Dumped body in canal or river 94
 
0.1% Buried the body 7
 
0.1% Dumped body in well or drain 6
 
0.1% Other 3
 

Security forces returned body

15.5% Yes 810
 
1.4% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 75
 
66.8% No 3,497
 

Condition of corpse, if known

13.3% Bullet wounds 694
 
3.6% Cuts/wounds 186
 
3.4% Broken bones 178
 
3.4% Bruises 177
 
2.8% Other 149
 
1.8% Burn marks 94
 
1.5% Missing hair from head or face 78
 
1.1% Missing fingernails 59
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

53.6% Yes 2,807
 
 
23.3% No 1,221

Security forces uniformed

85.6% Yes 2,714
 
 
10.2% No 322

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

69.6% Punjab Police 3,644
 
9.2% CRPF 480
 
2.4% Criminal Investigation Agency 127
 
2.2% Other 114
 
1.6% Black cat 84
 
1.5% BSF 79
 
0.9% Army 45
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

72.7% Punjab police 3,805
 
7.8% CRPF 409
 
2.4% Criminal Investigation Agency 124
 
1.9% BSF 101
 
1.9% Black cat 100
 
1.5% Army 76
 
1.4% Other 72
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

39.4% Combatant 2,063
 
 
57.0% Non-combatant 2,984

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

14.5% Yes 757
 
 
39.9% No 2,086

If provided support, support was voluntary

9.3% Yes 486
 
 
4.4% No 230

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

35.8% Yes 1,872
 
 
63.1% No 3,304

Approached security officials

45.4% Yes 2,374
 
 
53.8% No 2,814

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

49.6% Afraid of retaliation 2,596
 
18.6% Didn’t know what to do 972
 
13.6% Couldn’t afford 711
 
12.8% Believed it would have been ineffective 672
 
3.6% Not applicable 186
 
0.7% Other 38
 

Remedies desired from government

73.1% Monetary compensation to family 3,827
 
60.5% Truth commission 3,168
 
58.5% Employment 3,061
 
36.6% Criminal Sanctions against those responsible 1,915
 
32.9% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 1,720
 
32.7% Investigations into abuses 1,711
 
19.5% Rehabilitation services to family members 1,021
 
16.5% Memorial for victims 862
 
4.9% Desire nothing from government 257
 
3.1% Other 161
 

Year & District  

District

40.4% Amritsar 2,117
 
2.7% Bathinda 139
 
1.2% Faridkot 62
 
0.9% Fatehgarh Sahib 47
 
6.0% Firozpur 315
 
12.2% Gurdaspur 641
 
1.7% Hoshiarpur 88
 
3.0% Jalandhar 155
 
2.9% Kapurthala 154
 
5.9% Ludhiana 311
 
1.8% Mansa 92
 
4.2% Moga 220
 
0.7% Muktsar 38
 
0.8% Nawanshahr 41
 
2.0% Patiala 107
 
1.6% Rupnagar 82
 
4.5% Sangrur 238
 

Year

0.1% 1981 3
 
0.1% 1982 6
 
0.4% 1983 21
 
2.0% 1984 105
 
0.5% 1985 25
 
1.8% 1986 95
 
5.3% 1987 275
 
4.8% 1988 250
 
7.8% 1989 409
 
8.6% 1990 450
 
19.3% 1991 1,008
 
26.4% 1992 1,382
 
13.1% 1993 686
 
2.3% 1994 118
 
0.8% 1995 40
 
0.4% 1996 19
 
0.2% 1997 11
 
0.2% 1998 8
 
0.2% 1999 8
 
0.0% 2000 1
 
0.0% 2001 1
 
0.0% 2002 1
 
0.0% 2003 2
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.1% 2005 5
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 1
 
0.0% 2012 1