Key Statistics

Percentage of 5,213 documented cases. Percentages may not equal 100% because some respondents did not answer every survey question.


Victim Demographics 

Gender

97.8% Male 5,096
 
 
2.2% Female 117

Marital status

57.8% Not married 3,011
 
 
42.0% Married 2,192

If married, did the victim have children?

36.0% Yes 1,875
 
 
4.8% No 248


Total children surviving victims: 5,131


Religion

98.1% Sikh 5,113
 
 
1.9% Non-Sikh 97

Caste

70.8% Jat 3,689
 
 
29.1% Non-Jat 1,516

Age

5.1% 0-17 268
 
73.6% 18-33 3,837
 
14.0% 34-49 728
 
3.6% 50-64 188
 
1.4% 65+ 72
 
0.3% Age unknown 16
 

Education

23.7% No education 1,233
 
16.8% Primary school 878
 
16.2% Middle school 843
 
33.7% High school 1,755
 
2.1% Some college 111
 
3.4% College degree 177
 
1.6% Graduate degree 82
 
2.0% Vocational degree 106
 

Employment

43.4% Farmer/agriculture 2,265
 
13.2% Day labourer 689
 
9.8% Student 513
 
5.2% Driver (bus/truck/car) 269
 
4.2% Shopkeeper 218
 
3.0% Unemployed 158
 
2.1% Mechanic 107
 
1.6% Housewife 81
 
0.5% Carpenter 28
 
23.2% Other 1,208
 

Urban / Rural

84.3% Rural 4,395
 
 
8.3% Urban 431

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

44.9% Yes 2,341
 
 
54.4% No 2,837

Prior torture

34.9% Yes 1,819
 
 
10.0% No 522

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

77.9% Yes 4,063
 
 
19.6% No 1,024

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

20.3% Yes 640
 
 
76.8% No 2,426

Witnesses to abduction

60.6% Yes 3,159
 
 
5.4% No 284

Victim abduction location

19.3% Victim’s residence 1,004
 
13.9% Roadside 727
 
10.5% Friend/relative's residence 545
 
6.5% Village fields 337
 
3.1% Shop/market 164
 
2.9% Police station 152
 
2.5% Checkpoint (naka) 128
 
2.3% Bus station/stand 120
 
0.7% Village drain 36
 
11.3% Other 591
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

49.2% Yes 2,565
 
 
28.4% No 1,479

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

13.0% Gave no response 680
 
11.6% Denied involvement 605
 
11.4% Other 596
 
7.0% Told family to go to another police station 365
 
5.1% Killed victim in an “encounter” 264
 
4.3% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 222
 
2.0% Admitted custody only 104
 
1.6% Victim had escaped 86
 
0.5% Victim accidentally killed in custody 24
 
0.3% Victim killed in crossfire with militants 18
 
0.3% Victim killed by militants 18
 
0.1% Victim killed while trying to escape 7
 
0.0% Victim killed by black cats 2
 
0.0% Victim killed while resisting arrest/search 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

3.8% Yes 198
 
 
52.7% No 2,745

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

83.8% Extrajudicial executions 4,370
 
 
16.2% Enforced disappearances 843

Number of victims per family

82.1% 1 victim 4,280
 
12.7% 2 victims 664
 
3.7% 3 victims 194
 
0.6% 4 victims 29
 
0.3% 5 victims 16
 
0.1% 6 victims 6
 
0.3% 7 victims 14
 
0.2% 9 victims 9
 

Related incidents

3.2% Genuine encounters in family 166
 
 
96.1% No genuine encounters in family 5,009

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

31.8% Cremated the body 1,660
 
1.8% Dumped body in canal or river 94
 
0.1% Buried the body 7
 
0.1% Dumped body in well or drain 6
 
0.1% Other 3
 

Security forces returned body

15.5% Yes 808
 
1.4% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 74
 
66.7% No 3,477
 

Condition of corpse, if known

13.3% Bullet wounds 691
 
3.5% Cuts/wounds 185
 
3.4% Broken bones 178
 
3.4% Bruises 177
 
2.8% Other 148
 
1.8% Burn marks 94
 
1.5% Missing hair from head or face 77
 
1.1% Missing fingernails 58
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

53.9% Yes 2,810
 
 
22.9% No 1,195

Security forces uniformed

85.6% Yes 2,704
 
 
10.2% No 322

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

69.7% Punjab Police 3,632
 
9.2% CRPF 482
 
2.4% Criminal Investigation Agency 126
 
2.1% Other 111
 
1.6% Black cat 83
 
1.5% BSF 77
 
0.9% Army 45
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

72.6% Punjab police 3,784
 
7.8% CRPF 408
 
2.4% Criminal Investigation Agency 123
 
1.9% Black cat 100
 
1.8% BSF 96
 
1.5% Army 77
 
1.4% Other 71
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

39.5% Combatant 2,059
 
 
56.9% Non-combatant 2,968

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

14.5% Yes 755
 
 
39.8% No 2,076

If provided support, support was voluntary

9.3% Yes 485
 
 
4.4% No 228

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

35.8% Yes 1,867
 
 
63.1% No 3,288

Approached security officials

45.0% Yes 2,347
 
 
54.1% No 2,820

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

49.6% Afraid of retaliation 2,586
 
18.5% Didn’t know what to do 966
 
13.6% Couldn’t afford 708
 
12.8% Believed it would have been ineffective 667
 
3.5% Not applicable 183
 
0.7% Other 38
 

Remedies desired from government

73.3% Monetary compensation to family 3,820
 
60.7% Truth commission 3,162
 
58.7% Employment 3,058
 
36.5% Criminal Sanctions against those responsible 1,904
 
32.8% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 1,709
 
32.7% Investigations into abuses 1,707
 
19.6% Rehabilitation services to family members 1,020
 
16.5% Memorial for victims 858
 
4.9% Desire nothing from government 253
 
3.1% Other 160
 

Time & Place  

District

40.6% Amritsar 2,117
 
2.6% Bathinda 137
 
1.2% Faridkot 62
 
0.9% Fatehgarh Sahib 47
 
6.0% Firozpur 315
 
12.2% Gurdaspur 636
 
1.7% Hoshiarpur 87
 
3.0% Jalandhar 154
 
3.0% Kapurthala 154
 
5.9% Ludhiana 305
 
1.8% Mansa 92
 
4.2% Moga 220
 
0.7% Muktsar 38
 
0.8% Nawanshahr 41
 
2.1% Patiala 107
 
1.4% Rupnagar 75
 
4.6% Sangrur 238
 

Year

0.1% 1981 3
 
0.1% 1982 6
 
0.4% 1983 21
 
2.0% 1984 105
 
0.5% 1985 24
 
1.8% 1986 95
 
5.3% 1987 274
 
4.8% 1988 250
 
7.8% 1989 406
 
8.6% 1990 450
 
19.2% 1991 1,000
 
26.5% 1992 1,380
 
13.1% 1993 683
 
2.2% 1994 117
 
0.8% 1995 40
 
0.4% 1996 19
 
0.2% 1997 11
 
0.2% 1998 9
 
0.2% 1999 8
 
0.0% 2000 1
 
0.0% 2001 1
 
0.0% 2002 1
 
0.0% 2003 2
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.1% 2005 5
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 1
 
0.0% 2012 1