Key Statistics

Percentage of 5,302 documented cases. Percentages may not equal 100% because some respondents did not answer every survey question.


Victim Demographics 

Gender

97.7% Male 5,180
 
 
2.3% Female 121

Marital status

57.9% Not married 3,071
 
 
41.9% Married 2,219

If married, did the victim have children?

35.8% Yes 1,900
 
 
4.8% No 253


Total children surviving victims: 5,197


Religion

98.1% Sikh 5,201
 
 
1.8% Non-Sikh 97

Caste

70.6% Jat 3,745
 
 
29.2% Non-Jat 1,548

Age

5.1% 0-17 269
 
73.6% 18-33 3,904
 
13.9% 34-49 739
 
3.6% 50-64 189
 
1.4% 65+ 76
 
0.3% Age unknown 17
 

Education

23.6% No education 1,253
 
16.8% Primary school 890
 
16.2% Middle school 857
 
33.6% High school 1,779
 
2.2% Some college 114
 
3.5% College degree 187
 
1.6% Graduate degree 83
 
2.1% Vocational degree 110
 

Employment

43.4% Farmer/agriculture 2,302
 
13.0% Day labourer 691
 
10.0% Student 528
 
5.1% Driver (bus/truck/car) 273
 
4.1% Shopkeeper 217
 
3.1% Unemployed 162
 
2.1% Mechanic 111
 
1.6% Housewife 83
 
0.5% Carpenter 29
 
23.3% Other 1,235
 

Urban / Rural

84.0% Rural 4,454
 
 
8.5% Urban 449

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

44.9% Yes 2,381
 
 
54.4% No 2,885

Prior torture

34.9% Yes 1,852
 
 
10.0% No 529

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

77.9% Yes 4,131
 
 
19.7% No 1,043

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

19.9% Yes 638
 
 
76.7% No 2,459

Witnesses to abduction

60.5% Yes 3,208
 
 
5.4% No 286

Victim abduction location

19.3% Victim’s residence 1,021
 
14.1% Roadside 745
 
10.4% Friend/relative's residence 552
 
6.4% Village fields 341
 
3.1% Shop/market 167
 
2.9% Police station 153
 
2.5% Checkpoint (naka) 130
 
2.3% Bus station/stand 120
 
0.7% Village drain 37
 
11.3% Other 598
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

49.2% Yes 2,611
 
 
28.3% No 1,502

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

13.1% Gave no response 695
 
11.7% Other 618
 
11.5% Denied involvement 611
 
7.0% Told family to go to another police station 373
 
5.2% Killed victim in an “encounter” 276
 
4.3% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 228
 
2.0% Admitted custody only 108
 
1.7% Victim had escaped 88
 
0.5% Victim accidentally killed in custody 24
 
0.3% Victim killed in crossfire with militants 18
 
0.3% Victim killed by militants 18
 
0.1% Victim killed while trying to escape 7
 
0.0% Victim killed by black cats 2
 
0.0% Victim killed while resisting arrest/search 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

3.8% Yes 201
 
 
52.9% No 2,805

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

84.1% Extrajudicial executions 4,458
 
 
15.9% Enforced disappearances 843

Number of victims per family

82.4% 1 victim 4,368
 
12.7% 2 victim 675
 
3.4% 3 victim 181
 
0.6% 4 victim 31
 
0.3% 5 victim 16
 
0.1% 6 victim 6
 
0.3% 7 victim 14
 
0.2% 9 victim 9
 

Related incidents

3.4% Genuine encounters in family 180
 
 
95.8% No genuine encounters in family 5,080

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

31.7% Cremated the body 1,680
 
1.8% Dumped body in canal or river 96
 
0.1% Buried the body 7
 
0.1% Dumped body in well or drain 6
 
0.1% Other 4
 

Security forces returned body

15.7% Yes 830
 
1.4% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 75
 
66.8% No 3,541
 

Condition of corpse, if known

13.5% Bullet wounds 715
 
3.5% Cuts/wounds 188
 
3.4% Bruises 179
 
3.4% Broken bones 178
 
2.8% Other 150
 
1.8% Burn marks 97
 
1.5% Missing hair from head or face 80
 
1.1% Missing fingernails 60
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

53.9% Yes 2,860
 
 
23.4% No 1,239

Security forces uniformed

85.4% Yes 2,741
 
 
10.2% No 328

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

69.8% Punjab Police 3,701
 
9.1% CRPF 483
 
2.8% Criminal Investigation Agency 151
 
2.2% Other 119
 
1.7% Black cat 89
 
1.5% BSF 78
 
0.9% Army 46
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

73.0% Punjab police 3,869
 
8.0% CRPF 424
 
2.5% Criminal Investigation Agency 135
 
2.2% Black cat 114
 
2.0% BSF 106
 
1.6% Army 84
 
1.6% Other 83
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

39.5% Combatant 2,094
 
 
56.9% Non-combatant 3,016

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

14.4% Yes 762
 
 
39.8% No 2,108

If provided support, support was voluntary

9.2% Yes 490
 
 
4.4% No 231

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

35.4% Yes 1,876
 
 
63.5% No 3,366

Approached security officials

45.2% Yes 2,397
 
 
53.9% No 2,856

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

49.8% Afraid of retaliation 2,639
 
18.6% Didn’t know what to do 985
 
13.6% Couldn’t afford 719
 
12.9% Believed it would have been ineffective 686
 
3.6% Not applicable 190
 
0.7% Other 39
 

Remedies desired from government

72.7% Monetary compensation to family 3,854
 
60.4% Truth commission 3,205
 
58.0% Employment 3,077
 
36.3% Criminal sanctions against those responsible 1,922
 
32.6% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 1,728
 
32.5% Investigations into abuses 1,723
 
19.6% Rehabilitation services to family members 1,041
 
16.3% Memorial for victims 864
 
5.1% Desire nothing from government 272
 
3.1% Other 163
 

Year & District 

District

39.6% Amritsar 2,098
 
2.6% Bathinda 140
 
1.2% Faridkot 62
 
0.9% Fatehgarh Sahib 47
 
5.9% Firozpur 312
 
12.0% Gurdaspur 638
 
1.8% Hoshiarpur 94
 
3.0% Jalandhar 161
 
3.0% Kapurthala 157
 
5.9% Ludhiana 311
 
1.7% Mansa 92
 
4.7% Moga 249
 
0.8% Muktsar 40
 
0.9% Nawanshahr 46
 
2.1% Patiala 112
 
2.0% Rupnagar 104
 
4.5% Sangrur 238
 

Year

0.1% 1981 3
 
0.2% 1982 8
 
0.4% 1983 22
 
2.0% 1984 108
 
0.5% 1985 26
 
1.8% 1986 97
 
5.4% 1987 287
 
4.8% 1988 254
 
7.8% 1989 413
 
8.5% 1990 451
 
19.4% 1991 1,030
 
26.4% 1992 1,399
 
13.0% 1993 690
 
2.2% 1994 116
 
0.8% 1995 40
 
0.4% 1996 19
 
0.2% 1997 11
 
0.1% 1998 7
 
0.2% 1999 8
 
0.0% 2000 1
 
0.0% 2001 1
 
0.0% 2002 1
 
0.0% 2003 2
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.1% 2005 5
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 1
 
0.0% 2012 1
 
5.7% Date Unknown 300