Key Statistics

Percentage of 5,130 documented cases. Percentages may not equal 100% because some respondents did not answer every survey question.


Victim Demographics 

Gender

97.7% Male 5,014
 
 
2.3% Female 116

Marital status

57.7% Not married 2,960
 
 
42.1% Married 2,160

If married, did the victim have children?

36.1% Yes 1,851
 
 
4.6% No 235


Total children surviving victims: 5,077


Religion

98.1% Sikh 5,032
 
 
1.9% Non-Sikh 95

Caste

70.7% Jat 3,627
 
 
29.1% Non-Jat 1,495

Age

5.2% 0-17 268
 
73.5% 18-33 3,772
 
13.9% 34-49 715
 
3.6% 50-64 184
 
1.4% 65+ 72
 
0.3% Age unknown 16
 

Education

23.8% No education 1,221
 
16.9% Primary school 869
 
16.2% Middle school 831
 
33.5% High school 1,720
 
2.1% Some college 110
 
3.3% College degree 171
 
1.5% Graduate degree 78
 
2.0% Vocational degree 103
 

Employment

43.4% Farmer/agriculture 2,228
 
13.2% Day labourer 679
 
9.8% Student 502
 
5.1% Driver (bus/truck/car) 263
 
4.2% Shopkeeper 218
 
3.0% Unemployed 155
 
2.1% Mechanic 106
 
1.6% Housewife 80
 
0.5% Carpenter 27
 
23.0% Other 1,182
 

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

44.8% Yes 2,300
 
 
54.5% No 2,798

Prior torture

34.9% Yes 1,789
 
 
10.0% No 511

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

77.7% Yes 3,985
 
 
19.7% No 1,012

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

20.3% Yes 629
 
 
77.1% No 2,390

Witnesses to abduction

60.4% Yes 3,099
 
 
5.6% No 287

Victim abduction location

19.3% Victim’s residence 989
 
13.9% Roadside 712
 
10.4% Friend/relative's residence 531
 
6.5% Village fields 331
 
3.2% Shop/market 164
 
2.9% Police station 150
 
2.4% Checkpoint (naka) 124
 
2.3% Bus station/stand 117
 
0.7% Village drain 37
 
11.3% Other 579
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

49.1% Yes 2,520
 
 
28.2% No 1,445

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

13.2% Gave no response 677
 
11.5% Denied involvement 589
 
11.1% Other 567
 
6.9% Told family to go to another police station 352
 
5.0% Killed victim in an “encounter” 255
 
4.3% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 219
 
1.9% Admitted custody only 100
 
1.6% Victim had escaped 83
 
0.5% Victim accidentally killed in custody 24
 
0.3% Victim killed in crossfire with militants 17
 
0.3% Victim killed by militants 15
 
0.1% Victim killed while trying to escape 7
 
0.0% Victim killed by black cats 2
 
0.0% Victim killed while resisting arrest/search 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

3.7% Yes 192
 
 
52.3% No 2,684

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

83.6% Extrajudicial executions 4,291
 
 
16.4% Enforced disappearances 839

Number of victims per family

82.0% 1 victim 4,209
 
12.8% 2 victims 655
 
3.7% 3 victims 191
 
0.6% 4 victims 29
 
0.3% 5 victims 16
 
0.1% 6 victims 6
 
0.3% 7 victims 14
 
0.2% 9 victims 9
 

Related incidents

3.2% Genuine encounters in family 162
 
 
96.1% No genuine encounters in family 4,930

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

31.3% Cremated the body 1,607
 
1.8% Dumped body in canal or river 94
 
0.2% Buried the body 8
 
0.1% Dumped body in well or drain 6
 
0.1% Other 3
 

Security forces returned body

15.5% Yes 794
 
1.4% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 72
 
66.5% No 3,412
 

Condition of corpse, if known

13.2% Bullet wounds 676
 
3.5% Cuts/wounds 177
 
3.4% Broken bones 175
 
3.3% Bruises 168
 
2.7% Other 137
 
1.8% Burn marks 91
 
1.5% Missing hair from head or face 77
 
1.1% Missing fingernails 57
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

53.9% Yes 2,765
 
 
22.5% No 1,156

Security forces uniformed

85.7% Yes 2,655
 
 
10.2% No 317

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

69.6% Punjab Police 3,568
 
9.3% CRPF 478
 
2.5% Criminal Investigation Agency 126
 
2.1% Other 106
 
1.6% Black cat 81
 
1.4% BSF 70
 
0.9% Army 45
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

72.3% Punjab police 3,710
 
7.9% CRPF 403
 
2.4% Criminal Investigation Agency 123
 
1.9% Black cat 98
 
1.7% BSF 87
 
1.5% Army 77
 
1.3% Other 67
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

39.3% Combatant 2,014
 
 
57.1% Non-combatant 2,930

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

14.6% Yes 751
 
 
39.8% No 2,043

If provided support, support was voluntary

9.4% Yes 481
 
 
4.5% No 229

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

36.1% Yes 1,850
 
 
62.8% No 3,220

Approached security officials

44.7% Yes 2,293
 
 
54.4% No 2,791

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

49.6% Afraid of retaliation 2,542
 
18.5% Didn’t know what to do 951
 
13.7% Couldn’t afford 705
 
12.9% Believed it would have been ineffective 661
 
3.4% Not applicable 173
 
0.7% Other 34
 

Remedies desired from government

73.7% Monetary compensation to family 3,780
 
61.0% Truth commission 3,128
 
59.1% Employment 3,032
 
36.5% Criminal Sanctions against those responsible 1,873
 
33.2% Investigations into abuses 1,703
 
33.0% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 1,693
 
19.8% Rehabilitation services to family members 1,016
 
16.4% Memorial for victims 839
 
4.7% Desire nothing from government 243
 
3.0% Other 154