Patiala

Boundaries based on the 2001 census. Read about our methodology.


107 documented cases in Patiala District


Key statistics for documented cases in Patiala District

Victim Demographics 

Gender

94.4% Male 101
 
 
5.6% Female 6

Marital status

40.2% Not married 43
 
 
59.8% Married 64

If married, did the victim have children?

51.4% Yes 55
 
 
7.5% No 8


Total children surviving victims: 151


Religion

100.0% Sikh 107
 

Caste

69.2% Jat 74
 
 
30.8% Non-Jat 33

Age

6.5% 0-17 7
 
69.2% 18-33 74
 
13.1% 34-49 14
 
8.4% 50-64 9
 
1.9% 65+ 2
 

Education

24.3% No education 26
 
9.3% Primary school 10
 
14.0% Middle school 15
 
37.4% High school 40
 
1.9% Some college 2
 
7.5% College degree 8
 
1.9% Graduate degree 2
 
2.8% Vocational degree 3
 

Employment

36.4% Farmer/agriculture 39
 
14.0% Student 15
 
11.2% Day labourer 12
 
6.5% Driver (bus/truck/car) 7
 
5.6% Housewife 6
 
1.9% Shopkeeper 2
 
1.9% Unemployed 2
 
0.9% Mechanic 1
 
0.9% Carpenter 1
 
26.2% Other 28
 

Urban / Rural

86.9% Rural 93
 
 
13.1% Urban 14

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

53.3% Yes 57
 
 
45.8% No 49

Prior torture

48.6% Yes 52
 
 
4.7% No 5

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

77.6% Yes 83
 
 
19.6% No 21

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

14.5% Yes 8
 
 
70.9% No 39

Witnesses to abduction

51.4% Yes 55
 
 
7.5% No 8

Victim abduction location

17.8% Victim’s residence 19
 
14.0% Roadside 15
 
5.6% Friend/relative's residence 6
 
5.6% Village fields 6
 
4.7% Police station 5
 
3.7% Bus station/stand 4
 
3.7% Shop/market 4
 
0.9% Checkpoint (naka) 1
 
12.1% Other 13
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

40.2% Yes 43
 
 
37.4% No 40

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

20.6% Denied involvement 22
 
15.0% Gave no response 16
 
11.2% Told family to go to another police station 12
 
6.5% Other 7
 
4.7% Victim had escaped 5
 
2.8% Killed victim in an “encounter” 3
 
1.9% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 2
 
0.9% Admitted custody only 1
 
0.9% Victim killed by militants 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

6.5% Yes 7
 
 
65.4% No 70

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

67.3% Extrajudicial executions 72
 
 
32.7% Enforced disappearances 35

Number of victims per family

72.9% 1 victim 78
 
15.0% 2 victims 16
 
5.6% 3 victims 6
 
6.5% 4 victims 7
 

Related incidents

3.7% Genuine encounters in family 4
 
 
95.3% No genuine encounters in family 102

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

10.3% Cremated the body 11
 
1.9% Dumped body in canal or river 2
 
0.9% Buried the body 1
 

Security forces returned body

21.5% Yes 23
 
4.7% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 5
 
41.1% No 44
 

Condition of corpse, if known

15.0% Bullet wounds 16
 
5.6% Bruises 6
 
5.6% Other 6
 
5.6% Cuts/wounds 6
 
3.7% Burn marks 4
 
1.9% Missing fingernails 2
 
0.9% Broken bones 1
 
0.9% Missing hair from head or face 1
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

48.6% Yes 52
 
 
21.5% No 23

Security forces uniformed

80.0% Yes 44
 
 
20.0% No 11

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

63.6% Punjab Police 68
 
9.3% Criminal Investigation Agency 10
 
3.7% Other 4
 
1.9% CRPF 2
 
0.9% Black cat 1
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

53.3% Punjab police 57
 
8.4% Criminal Investigation Agency 9
 
2.8% Army 3
 
1.9% CRPF 2
 
0.9% Other 1
 
0.9% Black cat 1
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

35.5% Combatant 38
 
 
58.9% Non-combatant 63

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

12.1% Yes 13
 
 
45.8% No 49

If provided support, support was voluntary

8.4% Yes 9
 
 
3.7% No 4

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

23.4% Yes 25
 
 
76.6% No 82

Approached security officials

48.6% Yes 52
 
 
51.4% No 55

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

72.0% Afraid of retaliation 77
 
28.0% Couldn’t afford 30
 
20.6% Didn’t know what to do 22
 
5.6% Believed it would have been ineffective 6
 
4.7% Not applicable 5
 

Remedies desired from government

74.8% Truth commission 80
 
71.0% Monetary compensation to family 76
 
69.2% Employment 74
 
56.1% Criminal Sanctions against those responsible 60
 
42.1% Investigations into abuses 45
 
25.2% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 27
 
23.4% Memorial for victims 25
 
16.8% Rehabilitation services to family members 18
 
4.7% Desire nothing from government 5
 

Time & Place  

District

100.0% Patiala 107
 

Year

0.0% 1981 0
 
0.0% 1982 0
 
2.8% 1983 3
 
1.9% 1984 2
 
0.0% 1985 0
 
0.9% 1986 1
 
1.9% 1987 2
 
3.7% 1988 4
 
1.9% 1989 2
 
10.3% 1990 11
 
21.5% 1991 23
 
20.6% 1992 22
 
19.6% 1993 21
 
4.7% 1994 5
 
1.9% 1995 2
 
0.0% 1996 0
 
0.0% 1997 0
 
0.0% 1998 0
 
0.0% 1999 0
 
0.0% 2000 0
 
0.0% 2001 0
 
0.0% 2002 0
 
0.0% 2003 0
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.0% 2005 0
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 0
 
0.0% 2012 0