Patiala

Boundaries based on the 2001 census. Read about our methodology.


112 documented cases in Patiala District


Key statistics for documented cases in Patiala District

Victim Demographics 

Gender

94.6% Male 106
 
 
5.4% Female 6

Marital status

41.1% Not married 46
 
 
58.9% Married 66

If married, did the victim have children?

50.9% Yes 57
 
 
7.1% No 8


Total children surviving victims: 158


Religion

100.0% Sikh 112
 

Caste

67.0% Jat 75
 
 
33.0% Non-Jat 37

Age

7.1% 0-17 8
 
68.8% 18-33 77
 
13.4% 34-49 15
 
8.0% 50-64 9
 
1.8% 65+ 2
 

Education

23.2% No education 26
 
9.8% Primary school 11
 
15.2% Middle school 17
 
36.6% High school 41
 
2.7% Some college 3
 
7.1% College degree 8
 
1.8% Graduate degree 2
 
2.7% Vocational degree 3
 

Employment

35.7% Farmer/agriculture 40
 
13.4% Student 15
 
10.7% Day labourer 12
 
6.2% Driver (bus/truck/car) 7
 
5.4% Housewife 6
 
2.7% Unemployed 3
 
1.8% Shopkeeper 2
 
0.9% Mechanic 1
 
0.9% Carpenter 1
 
27.7% Other 31
 

Urban / Rural

82.1% Rural 92
 
 
17.9% Urban 20

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

54.5% Yes 61
 
 
44.6% No 50

Prior torture

49.1% Yes 55
 
 
5.4% No 6

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

78.6% Yes 88
 
 
18.8% No 21

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

13.6% Yes 8
 
 
69.5% No 41

Witnesses to abduction

52.7% Yes 59
 
 
8.0% No 9

Victim abduction location

17.0% Victim’s residence 19
 
15.2% Roadside 17
 
5.4% Police station 6
 
5.4% Village fields 6
 
5.4% Friend/relative's residence 6
 
4.5% Shop/market 5
 
3.6% Bus station/stand 4
 
1.8% Checkpoint (naka) 2
 
11.6% Other 13
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

42.0% Yes 47
 
 
36.6% No 41

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

19.6% Denied involvement 22
 
14.3% Gave no response 16
 
10.7% Told family to go to another police station 12
 
7.1% Other 8
 
4.5% Victim had escaped 5
 
3.6% Killed victim in an “encounter” 4
 
1.8% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 2
 
0.9% Admitted custody only 1
 
0.9% Victim killed by militants 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

6.2% Yes 7
 
 
67.0% No 75

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

68.8% Extrajudicial executions 77
 
 
31.2% Enforced disappearances 35

Number of victims per family

74.1% 1 victim 83
 
14.3% 2 victim 16
 
5.4% 3 victim 6
 
6.2% 4 victim 7
 

Related incidents

3.6% Genuine encounters in family 4
 
 
95.5% No genuine encounters in family 107

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

11.6% Cremated the body 13
 
1.8% Dumped body in canal or river 2
 
0.9% Buried the body 1
 

Security forces returned body

21.4% Yes 24
 
4.5% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 5
 
42.9% No 48
 

Condition of corpse, if known

15.2% Bullet wounds 17
 
5.4% Bruises 6
 
5.4% Cuts/wounds 6
 
5.4% Other 6
 
3.6% Burn marks 4
 
1.8% Missing fingernails 2
 
0.9% Missing hair from head or face 1
 
0.9% Broken bones 1
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

50.0% Yes 56
 
 
21.4% No 24

Security forces uniformed

78.0% Yes 46
 
 
20.3% No 12

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

65.2% Punjab Police 73
 
9.8% Criminal Investigation Agency 11
 
3.6% Other 4
 
1.8% CRPF 2
 
0.9% Black cat 1
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

55.4% Punjab police 62
 
8.0% Criminal Investigation Agency 9
 
2.7% Army 3
 
1.8% CRPF 2
 
0.9% Other 1
 
0.9% Black cat 1
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

35.7% Combatant 40
 
 
58.0% Non-combatant 65

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

11.6% Yes 13
 
 
45.5% No 51

If provided support, support was voluntary

8.0% Yes 9
 
 
3.6% No 4

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

22.3% Yes 25
 
 
77.7% No 87

Approached security officials

48.2% Yes 54
 
 
51.8% No 58

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

72.3% Afraid of retaliation 81
 
26.8% Couldn’t afford 30
 
20.5% Didn’t know what to do 23
 
7.1% Believed it would have been ineffective 8
 
4.5% Not applicable 5
 
0.9% Other 1
 

Remedies desired from government

75.0% Truth commission 84
 
72.3% Monetary compensation to family 81
 
70.5% Employment 79
 
54.5% Criminal sanctions against those responsible 61
 
43.8% Investigations into abuses 49
 
25.0% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 28
 
24.1% Memorial for victims 27
 
16.1% Rehabilitation services to family members 18
 
4.5% Desire nothing from government 5
 

Year & District 

District

100.0% Patiala 112
 

Year

0.0% 1981 0
 
0.0% 1982 0
 
3.6% 1983 4
 
1.8% 1984 2
 
0.0% 1985 0
 
0.9% 1986 1
 
1.8% 1987 2
 
3.6% 1988 4
 
1.8% 1989 2
 
9.8% 1990 11
 
20.5% 1991 23
 
21.4% 1992 24
 
19.6% 1993 22
 
4.5% 1994 5
 
1.8% 1995 2
 
0.0% 1996 0
 
0.0% 1997 0
 
0.0% 1998 0
 
0.0% 1999 0
 
0.0% 2000 0
 
0.0% 2001 0
 
0.0% 2002 0
 
0.0% 2003 0
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.0% 2005 0
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 0
 
0.0% 2012 0
 
8.9% Date Unknown 10