Ludhiana

Boundaries based on the 2001 census. Read about our methodology.


Key statistics for documented cases in Ludhiana District

Victim Demographics 

Gender

98.4% Male 300
 
 
1.6% Female 5

Marital status

56.7% Not married 173
 
 
42.6% Married 130

If married, did the victim have children?

37.7% Yes 115
 
 
4.3% No 13


Total children surviving victims: 290


Religion

99.0% Sikh 302
 
 
0.7% Non-Sikh 2

Caste

66.6% Jat 203
 
 
33.1% Non-Jat 101

Age

3.9% 0-17 12
 
72.1% 18-33 220
 
16.4% 34-49 50
 
3.6% 50-64 11
 
0.7% 65+ 2
 
1.3% Age unknown 4
 

Education

15.4% No education 47
 
19.0% Primary school 58
 
18.4% Middle school 56
 
33.4% High school 102
 
2.3% Some college 7
 
4.9% College degree 15
 
2.6% Graduate degree 8
 
3.0% Vocational degree 9
 

Employment

33.4% Farmer/agriculture 102
 
14.8% Day labourer 45
 
12.1% Student 37
 
6.2% Shopkeeper 19
 
5.9% Driver (bus/truck/car) 18
 
3.9% Mechanic 12
 
2.6% Unemployed 8
 
1.3% Carpenter 4
 
1.3% Housewife 4
 
27.2% Other 83
 

Urban / Rural

91.8% Rural 280
 
 
8.2% Urban 25

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

47.5% Yes 145
 
 
51.8% No 158

Prior torture

33.8% Yes 103
 
 
13.8% No 42

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

79.7% Yes 243
 
 
16.7% No 51

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

19.2% Yes 34
 
 
67.8% No 120

Witnesses to abduction

58.0% Yes 177
 
 
6.9% No 21

Victim abduction location

22.0% Victim’s residence 67
 
10.5% Roadside 32
 
6.2% Shop/market 19
 
6.2% Village fields 19
 
5.2% Friend/relative's residence 16
 
5.2% Police station 16
 
2.6% Bus station/stand 8
 
1.3% Checkpoint (naka) 4
 
1.0% Village drain 3
 
13.4% Other 41
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

50.5% Yes 154
 
 
27.5% No 84

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

13.1% Gave no response 40
 
9.8% Other 30
 
7.2% Denied involvement 22
 
4.6% Told family to go to another police station 14
 
3.3% Killed victim in an “encounter” 10
 
3.0% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 9
 
2.3% Victim had escaped 7
 
0.7% Admitted custody only 2
 
0.3% Victim accidentally killed in custody 1
 
0.3% Victim killed by militants 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

2.0% Yes 6
 
 
68.5% No 209

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

86.2% Extrajudicial executions 263
 
 
13.8% Enforced disappearances 42

Number of victims per family

82.6% 1 victim 252
 
16.7% 2 victims 51
 
0.7% 6 victims 2
 

Related incidents

0.7% Genuine encounters in family 2
 
 
99.0% No genuine encounters in family 302

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

28.9% Cremated the body 88
 
2.3% Dumped body in canal or river 7
 

Security forces returned body

15.1% Yes 46
 
0.7% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 2
 
70.5% No 215
 

Condition of corpse, if known

7.9% Bullet wounds 24
 
4.3% Other 13
 
3.0% Cuts/wounds 9
 
3.0% Broken bones 9
 
2.6% Bruises 8
 
2.0% Burn marks 6
 
1.3% Missing fingernails 4
 
0.7% Missing hair from head or face 2
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

49.2% Yes 150
 
 
27.2% No 83

Security forces uniformed

88.1% Yes 156
 
 
14.1% No 25

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

72.1% Punjab Police 220
 
5.9% CRPF 18
 
5.6% Criminal Investigation Agency 17
 
1.3% Other 4
 
0.7% Black cat 2
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

75.4% Punjab police 230
 
7.5% Criminal Investigation Agency 23
 
4.6% CRPF 14
 
1.6% Other 5
 
1.3% Army 4
 
0.7% Black cat 2
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

34.1% Combatant 104
 
 
63.3% Non-combatant 193

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

11.1% Yes 34
 
 
48.2% No 147

If provided support, support was voluntary

6.9% Yes 21
 
 
4.3% No 13

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

19.3% Yes 59
 
 
79.7% No 243

Approached security officials

38.0% Yes 116
 
 
60.7% No 185

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

63.3% Afraid of retaliation 193
 
13.8% Couldn’t afford 42
 
12.5% Didn’t know what to do 38
 
9.2% Believed it would have been ineffective 28
 
4.9% Not applicable 15
 
1.3% Other 4
 

Remedies desired from government

68.9% Truth commission 210
 
65.2% Monetary compensation to family 199
 
59.3% Employment 181
 
40.7% Criminal Sanctions against those responsible 124
 
37.7% Investigations into abuses 115
 
31.5% Memorial for victims 96
 
26.9% Rehabilitation services to family members 82
 
14.4% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 44
 
4.3% Desire nothing from government 13
 
3.6% Other 11
 

Time & Place  

District

100.0% Ludhiana 305
 

Year

0.0% 1981 0
 
0.3% 1982 1
 
2.0% 1983 6
 
2.6% 1984 8
 
0.3% 1985 1
 
1.3% 1986 4
 
2.3% 1987 7
 
3.9% 1988 12
 
6.9% 1989 21
 
3.6% 1990 11
 
14.1% 1991 43
 
29.2% 1992 89
 
19.7% 1993 60
 
2.0% 1994 6
 
1.3% 1995 4
 
1.0% 1996 3
 
0.3% 1997 1
 
0.0% 1998 0
 
0.0% 1999 0
 
0.0% 2000 0
 
0.0% 2001 0
 
0.0% 2002 0
 
0.0% 2003 0
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.3% 2005 1
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 0
 
0.0% 2012 0