Ludhiana

Boundaries based on the 2001 census. Read about our methodology.


Key statistics for documented cases in Ludhiana District

Victim Demographics 

Gender

98.4% Male 306
 
 
1.6% Female 5

Marital status

56.3% Not married 175
 
 
43.1% Married 134

If married, did the victim have children?

38.3% Yes 119
 
 
4.2% No 13


Total children surviving victims: 303


Religion

99.0% Sikh 308
 
 
0.6% Non-Sikh 2

Caste

66.9% Jat 208
 
 
32.5% Non-Jat 101

Age

3.9% 0-17 12
 
72.0% 18-33 224
 
16.7% 34-49 52
 
3.5% 50-64 11
 
0.6% 65+ 2
 
1.3% Age unknown 4
 

Education

15.1% No education 47
 
19.0% Primary school 59
 
18.0% Middle school 56
 
33.8% High school 105
 
2.3% Some college 7
 
5.1% College degree 16
 
2.6% Graduate degree 8
 
2.9% Vocational degree 9
 

Employment

34.1% Farmer/agriculture 106
 
14.5% Day labourer 45
 
11.9% Student 37
 
6.1% Shopkeeper 19
 
5.5% Driver (bus/truck/car) 17
 
4.5% Mechanic 14
 
2.6% Unemployed 8
 
1.3% Housewife 4
 
1.3% Carpenter 4
 
27.3% Other 85
 

Urban / Rural

91.3% Rural 284
 
 
8.7% Urban 27

Abduction, Detention, & Torture 

Prior detentions

47.3% Yes 147
 
 
51.8% No 161

Prior torture

33.8% Yes 105
 
 
13.5% No 42

Abduction preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

79.4% Yes 247
 
 
16.4% No 51

Security officials informed witnesses where they were taking the victim

19.4% Yes 35
 
 
68.9% No 124

Witnesses to abduction

57.9% Yes 180
 
 
6.8% No 21

Victim abduction location

22.5% Victim’s residence 70
 
10.3% Roadside 32
 
6.1% Shop/market 19
 
6.1% Village fields 19
 
5.1% Friend/relative's residence 16
 
5.1% Police station 16
 
2.6% Bus station/stand 8
 
1.3% Checkpoint (naka) 4
 
1.0% Village drain 3
 
13.5% Other 42
 

Detention facility type

Data forthcoming


Preceding detention location known

51.1% Yes 159
 
 
26.7% No 83

Witnesses to detention preceding enforced disappearance/extrajudicial execution

Data forthcoming


Security official response to victim status

13.5% Gave no response 42
 
9.6% Other 30
 
7.4% Denied involvement 23
 
4.8% Told family to go to another police station 15
 
3.2% Killed victim in an “encounter” 10
 
2.9% Admitted extrajudicial execution with no explanation 9
 
2.6% Victim had escaped 8
 
0.6% Admitted custody only 2
 
0.3% Victim accidentally killed in custody 1
 
0.3% Victim killed by militants 1
 

Victim presented before judge/magistrate

1.9% Yes 6
 
 
68.5% No 213

Enforced Disappearances vs. Extrajudicial Executions 

Classification

86.5% Extrajudicial executions 269
 
 
13.5% Enforced disappearances 42

Number of victims per family

83.0% 1 victim 258
 
16.4% 2 victims 51
 
0.6% 6 victims 2
 

Related incidents

0.6% Genuine encounters in family 2
 
 
98.7% No genuine encounters in family 307

Body Disposal 

Body disposal by security forces

28.3% Cremated the body 88
 
2.3% Dumped body in canal or river 7
 

Security forces returned body

14.8% Yes 46
 
0.6% Yes, but forced immediate cremation 2
 
71.1% No 221
 

Condition of corpse, if known

7.7% Bullet wounds 24
 
4.2% Other 13
 
2.9% Broken bones 9
 
2.9% Cuts/wounds 9
 
2.6% Bruises 8
 
1.9% Burn marks 6
 
1.3% Missing fingernails 4
 
0.6% Missing hair from head or face 2
 

Security Forces Implicated 

Names of involved security officials known

49.2% Yes 153
 
 
27.0% No 84

Security forces uniformed

89.4% Yes 161
 
 
13.9% No 25

Type(s) of security forces involved in abduction

72.0% Punjab Police 224
 
7.4% Criminal Investigation Agency 23
 
5.8% CRPF 18
 
1.3% Other 4
 
1.0% Black cat 3
 

Type(s) of security forces involved in extrajudicial execution

75.6% Punjab police 235
 
10.0% Criminal Investigation Agency 31
 
4.5% CRPF 14
 
1.6% Other 5
 
1.3% Army 4
 
1.0% Black cat 3
 

Militancy Involvement 

Combatant status

33.4% Combatant 104
 
 
63.3% Non-combatant 197

Non-combatant, provided support to militants

11.3% Yes 35
 
 
47.9% No 149

If provided support, support was voluntary

7.1% Yes 22
 
 
4.2% No 13

Remedies & Impact 

Approached court or commission

19.9% Yes 62
 
 
79.1% No 246

Approached security officials

38.6% Yes 120
 
 
60.1% No 187

Reason the family did not pursue any kind of action

63.0% Afraid of retaliation 196
 
14.1% Couldn’t afford 44
 
12.5% Didn’t know what to do 39
 
9.3% Believed it would have been ineffective 29
 
5.1% Not applicable 16
 
1.3% Other 4
 

Remedies desired from government

68.8% Truth commission 214
 
65.0% Monetary compensation to family 202
 
58.8% Employment 183
 
40.5% Criminal Sanctions against those responsible 126
 
37.0% Investigations into abuses 115
 
30.5% Memorial for victims 95
 
27.0% Rehabilitation services to family members 84
 
15.4% Public acknowledgement of wrongful deaths 48
 
4.2% Desire nothing from government 13
 
3.9% Other 12
 

Year & District  

District

100.0% Ludhiana 311
 

Year

0.0% 1981 0
 
0.3% 1982 1
 
1.9% 1983 6
 
2.6% 1984 8
 
0.3% 1985 1
 
1.3% 1986 4
 
2.3% 1987 7
 
3.9% 1988 12
 
6.8% 1989 21
 
3.5% 1990 11
 
13.8% 1991 43
 
29.3% 1992 91
 
20.3% 1993 63
 
1.9% 1994 6
 
1.3% 1995 4
 
1.0% 1996 3
 
0.3% 1997 1
 
0.0% 1998 0
 
0.0% 1999 0
 
0.0% 2000 0
 
0.0% 2001 0
 
0.0% 2002 0
 
0.0% 2003 0
 
0.0% 2004 0
 
0.3% 2005 1
 
0.0% 2006 0
 
0.0% 2007 0
 
0.0% 2012 0